college of surgeons

Excerpted from:

Frailty as a Predictor of Surgical Outcomes in Older Patients
by Martin A. Makary et al.
June 2010


Preoperative risk assessment is important yet inexact in older patients because physiologic reserves are difficult to measure. Frailty is thought to estimate physiologic reserves, although its use has not been evaluated in surgical patients. We designed a study to determine if frailty predicts surgical complications and enhances current perioperative risk models.


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